Why Does the Flu Come Back Every Year?

Why Does the Flu Come Back Every Year?

‘The flu’ has become a slang term
that refers to almost any ailment where you juuuust don’t feel quite right. But influenza proper is a handful of specific
viruses that invade the respiratory lining, evade the immune system, and mutate at a rate
that even the world’s most brilliant doctors, scientists, and health organizations struggle
to keep up with. So what is Influenza exactly, and why does it always seem
to be one step ahead of us? Some of the confusion around the term ‘flu’
may stem back to the word’s roots: “Influenza” is an Italian word that just means,  ‘influence.’ Because, back 500 years ago, people
didn’t know about germs then. They thought if you got this disease, you
were under the influence, perhaps of the stars or something else. My name is David Morens. I’m a medical doctor and an epidemiologist,
and a virologist, and a historian, at the National Institutes of Health, and an officer
in the United States Public Health Service, and I’m here today to talk about one of my
favorite subjects: influenza. Influenza presents with such iconic symptoms that many other diseases are classified by
their similarity to it. Tell your doctor you’re experiencing ‘flu-like
symptoms,’ and they’ll know exactly what you mean: coughing, fever, head and muscle
aches, fatigue, and well, just general “malaise…” …which kind of means just feeling really
bad. Anybody who’s ever had flu knows what it is. But while many illnesses are similar to influenza,
there’s only one True Flu. Well, four, actually… and trying to put
a finger on its countless variations and mutations is actually where influenza starts to get
the better of us. Depending on how you cut the cake, there are
billions and trillions and zillions of different types of influenza. But to start, we categorize them into four
categories: Influenza A, B, C, and D. The ones we’re most interested in because they
affect humans every year are A and B. C also infects humans, but it’s pretty much a minor
disease that affects children, and D is mostly an animal disease that people generally don’t
get, or at least they don’t get symptoms from it. Influenza A, B, and C for the kiddos, start
by entering your upper respiratory tract, either when you breathe contaminated air,
or touch your nose and mouth after coming into contact with the virus. The only cells it really infects are what
we call respiratory epithelial cells, a one-cell layer of cells that kind of protect the breathing
tubes and the lungs, all the way down to the bottom, where we have air sacs. Those lining cells are the ones that get infected. Once they reach your respiratory lining, the
viruses attach to a specific kind of cell receptor, called sialic acid. If you could see them up close, they’d look
like branches of trees. They stick out and they go in all different
directions. They kind of capture things, and by binding
to it, it can be dragged inside the cell, where it causes the infection. The influenza virus then makes its way through
your respiratory passages, in rare cases, reaching all the way to the bottom of the
lungs, and leading to severe pneumonia. All this suspicious activity would normally
cause your body to launch an immune response. And usually, it tries to. But this is complicated by the fact that the
virus and the immune cells coming to the rescue are separated by that epithelial barrier. That’s one of the reasons it makes it hard
to develop strong immunity to flu, and to raise strong immunity by using a flu vaccine. And as if that weren’t enough, even if you
are able to mount a defense of some sort against the virus, influenza has already invented
several thousand more versions of itself, before you can blink an eye. Influenza viruses are not stable things. They’re always moving and changing, day-to-day,
hour-to-hour, minute-to-minute. Mutation is all they can do. There is no state of their existence in human
beings that is not constantly mutating. This is because of a machinery in their RNA
that causes consistent errors in gene replication. But, unlike for humans, these ‘errors’
actually works to the virus’s advantage. They’re good errors that help them to survive. Even in your own body, if you are infected
with an influenza virus today, you’re not going to be infected by one virus. You’re going to be infected by let us say
1,000 or 10,000 viruses. And it’s this rapid-fire mutation that makes
whipping up a vaccine for this set of viruses a pretty tall order. Each year, researchers from the World Health
Organization and around the world develop one vaccine for the Northern Hemisphere, and
one for the Southern. These vaccines are released six months apart,
to coincide with winter’s ‘flu season’ in each area. Their recipe is slightly different each time,
and can be tailored for specific types of patients, like the elderly. The current vaccines have four viruses: two
influenza A, and two influenza B. And it may or may not work. Because in the meantime, the viruses circulating
around the world may have mutated to the point where your best guess vaccine is worthless. So, the scientists have to guess now, what
vaccine they’re going to need six months from now. It’s like looking into a crystal ball. And in addition to this seasonal cycle, every
three decades or so, the stakes ramp up, and the disease is dramatically more hostile,
causing a pandemic. The years we have a pandemic, as many as 50%
or 60% of all people might be infected within a year. That virus causing a pandemic can come at
any time of year. Eventually, we don’t call it a pandemic anymore
– we call it a seasonal virus. But all over the world, research continues
on influenza, and the hope of a universal vaccine could be in sight. A lot of scientists, including NIH and CDC,
are working very hard on this. Every year, all over the world, thousands
of influenza viruses are being taken from patients, and sequenced. This gives an idea about what directions the
evolution of this virus is going. By learning how the body can successfully
control influenza, we have a better idea how we can mimic that with a vaccine. But in the meantime… Don’t walk, run and get your flu shot, every

100 Replies to “Why Does the Flu Come Back Every Year?”

  1. Get this stupid transgender shit off your insignia . You dont represent America on veterans day but you represent people with mental illness who want to cut their kids dicks off. Pathetic. Get your stupid political beliefs off your page and focus on science.

  2. I THINK ITS THE HIGH SODIUM IN OUR DIET THAT WEAKENS OUR IMMUNE SYSTEM DEPLETION OF VITAMIN D ALONG WITH WITH CHANGE OF SEASON. SALT CAUSES THE DEPLETION OF VITAMIN D CAUSES OSTEOPOROSIS. PEOPLE GET SICK RIGHT AFTER THANKSGIVING WHY? You can say people gathering spreading the virus or high intake of salt do to thanksgiving dinner causingvthe depletion of vitamin d as well as the shorten days.

    Let thy Food be thy medicine and thy medicine be thy food- Hippocrates

    Question Everything- Socrates

  3. Why is it every time I get a flu shot within 24 hours I get very sick, but when I don't get a flu shot, I never get more than the mildest case of the flu, if I get sick at all?

  4. I just got the over 65 flu shot which is supposed to be more potent, but I actually don't remember when I last had the flu, but I do remember the two times I've had pneumonia and I had that supposed shot too…let's talk about the Black Death which by the way has again shown up recently in China, but they don't want to scare people so they don't talk about it….

  5. Humans are smart but we'll never be smart enough to outsmart nature. The original vaccine for the flu is in nature. Not in a lab.work with nature not against it. There are thousands of plants that are antiviral antimicrobial antibacterial to include flu fighting/aborting and their different chemistries are enough to prevent or abort a flu along with nutritious food. Not saying don't get vaccinated but we shouldn't rely solely on vaccines to not get sick. Sometimes scientists don't get it right as we saw about 2 years ago. Sometimes people just don't respond well to the vaccine itself.that was my first time ever getting the flu but i also had generally already been sick that whole year i'm 28 now. Hope I never get it (get sick from it anyway) again.

  6. Loved the video. Just wished the audio was a bit louder so I can hear it while I am listening to it on the trian with my headphones on.

  7. Nice to be told the truth. The media must be hyping vaccines for the drug companies. Knowledge about flu vaccines could put a stop to them and one less poison for humans to be burdened with.

  8. 0:44 If you are a doctor and you wanna talk about influenza, just talk about it and wear like a doctor no need to promote your self and your CV !! no one is hiring here.

  9. No 1 DONT get the flu shot!! I got deathly sick the two times I tried it.
    Then I got smart and read the ingredients in vaccines. Pure poison!!
    Plus I wash my hands every single time I come in the house, keep my hands out of my mouth and I haven’t got sick at all in 15 years other than the 2 times I had the stupid vaccine.

  10. thats weird.. when i got the flu or anyone ever.. it had zero to do with lungs.. and everything to do with diarrhea… puking.. and all around feeling like death.. doctor always said flu.. and thats what we underatand it to be in the u.p. sounds like this flu is more like the comon cold… which can get kinda nasty yes.. but nothing compaired to the flu.. so since we alrdy have colds.. ammonia.. what was the sickness we called flu as kids?

  11. Viruses live in the upper atmosphere and float from continent to continent via the jet stream…all the digging in Antarctic has released a slew of new virulent germs and virus which have the propensity to wipe out all life on earth….solution: spray the sky with chemicals. After our nuclear explosions in space in the 60's Operation Fishbowl/Starfish Prime…has allowed interstellar microbes into our biosphere…a containment operation has been under way for years to reduce its effect on earths life….mainly our oceans. The problem started when the Soviets K project caused an larger than expected EMP pulse which destroyed several secret biowarfare facilities near Dzhezkazgan…virulent agents were released into the environment. Containment operations were initiated to stop the dispersal, however these were largely unsuccessful.

  12. The flu is a man made virus which people don't question. Our bodies have a defense system that we completely bypass by getting a flu shot, and people don't know what else is in the flu shots. I know that all vaccines have a lot of Aluminum added which is present in everything including the food we eat and the air we breathe.

  13. There has never been a single flu vaccine ever produced that has ever shown any efficacy against any flu strain, and particularly not against the flu strain it was declared to be designed for. Statistics show that approximately 70% of those vaccinated will within 2 weeks develop the full-blown flu. All vaccines are bogus all vaccines all vaccines are weapons Against Humanity, all vaccines begin with a process involving what they call Immortal cell lines oh, these are cancer cells, all vaccines contain DNA material from cancer cells, Mercury, aluminum, thousands untested for an unidentified viruses and bacteria oh, all that scenes are designed primarily to shorten life spans, to induce medical disorders, and in some people to outright kill. All that scenes because they contain mercury and aluminum will cause brain damage. Statistics for the past couple decades show that people who have routinely taking flu vaccines have statistical shorter life spans, and in general or less healthy.

  14. Lol get your flu shot… even though we really can't combat it cuz we don't know what we're dealing with and it'll mutate anyways so our vaccine is not. Stellar plan.

  15. Saw a video a while back of people vaping alcohol from a big flask. I wonder if that would aid in killing these suckers. Alcohol generally kills that kind of thing.

  16. Dunno if the flus here in southeast Asia are just weaker or we're just better used to dealing with it and continue with life like nothing's up. Media depictions of western flu patients make them seem downright weak

  17. Now just wait umbrella corp to research mutating ability virus from Influenza and has lethal symptom as t virus. And called it z viral

  18. Sponsored by: giant pharmaceutical companies.
    I am never getting a flu shot. The doc himself said it's just a guess and it may not work at all leaving you sick for no reason

  19. hmm wonder if we could program a computer virus that intentionally makes errors/changes to never be fully deletable… thank you influenza/Seeker… gets back to programming

  20. Call me crazy idc all I know is the first time I ever got a flu shot one week later I get the flu for the first time ever.

  21. Once again, not making it clear that bolstering your immune system with a flu shot does not stop you from getting sick by and being contagious with the flu.

  22. Anyone I ever saw getting a "vaccine" got the flu real bad. Everyone I know that refuses to get them is rarely sick. It's a scam.

  23. Gentalman contiuos doing commerce of the good will round the world https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DnW9ZQtI1_E&t=674s

  24. https://www.lanacion.com.ar/politica/el-gobierno-declaro-la-emergencia-nacional-en-adicciones-hasta-diciembre-de-2018-nid1966225

  25. Medicine true love with sure secure, you have to be sure to be secure, with Strong Western Tradition, stronng cultural identity https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=INyMYy-QjxM

  26. if you completely close the commerce, even the local internal commerce captured by Nationalist Populists Mafias, this can happen to any society https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BjvfIJstWeg

  27. This is not fiction at all, masive use of drugs by the Nationalist, both right and left, Facists both right and left, Populists both right and left centralized Mafias, social descompensation with massive use of drugs https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NnFidFbwQSA

  28. But… why are we much more prone to get an influenza if it is cold? In summer we are basically out of danger. I have newer found a llegar explanation for that.

  29. He died in Venezuela due to masive drug abuse, so i think is much better a piano piano se va lontano https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9rkECcL_fgg

  30. They are doing it right now, https://www.google.com/search?client=opera&q=la+nacion+emergencia+en+adicciones+macri&sourceid=opera&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8

  31. So, are influenza living creatures? Meaning, do they consciously or unconsciously evolve or mutate? Do they live with a purpose?

  32. Remember it isn't always the flu. Flu vaccines are ineffective against the common cold and target only one strain if the virus. People are starting to forget about the common cold. I remember as a child how my doctor never recommend the flu shot because the chance of contracting the flu was minimal compared to the common cold.

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