What Causes Diabetes? Understanding Basics of Diabetes Mellitus – Causes and Mechanism

Hello Friends and Patients! Today we will look into some basics of Diabetes
Mellitus like, What is Diabetes, What are the causes of diabetes and what are the different
types of Diabetes. Understanding this basic knowledge and mechanism
is very important from the point of view of prevention, and treatment of this deadly disease
which affects almost all organs in your body. Before we start, make sure you have subscribed
to this channel with the notification bell clicked so that you get notified whenever
we add another useful episode. So, Lets get started! What is Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus? Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic (long standing)
disorder in which blood sugar or glucose levels are abnormally and persistently high because
the body does not produce the hormone insulin sufficiently to meet its requirements. We call it Diabetes Mellitus or in short DM,
because there exists another disorder called Diabetes Insipidus which is a rare disorder
that does not affect blood glucose levels but, just like diabetes mellitus, also causes
increased urination. This occurs due to lack of the hormone vasopressin
(also called Anti-Diuretic Hormone or ADH) that causes excessive production of very dilute
urine (that’s called Polyuria). Now to understand the Mechanism of what causes
Diabetes, we need to look into some basics, like the relationship between Glucose in the
blood and the hormone Insulin. Please stay hooked!, as this knowledge is
very important for prevention and treatment of diabetes. This means this is equally important for both
diabetics, pre-diabetics and even non-diabetics like youngers to prevent the occurrence of
diabetes in later part of their life. The three major nutrients present in our food
are Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fat. Carbohydrates are the starches and sugars
which can be simple sugars like monosaccharides to complex sugars like polysaccharides. Let’s quickly look into this biochemical classification
of carbohydrates as: 1.Monosaccharides or single sugars or simple
sugars (for example Glucose, Fructose and Galactose)
2.Disaccharides or double sugars 3.Oligosaccharides and
4.Polysaccharides Whatever it is, these sugars are broken down
into simple sugars like glucose by enzymes in the digestive tract before the body can
absorb them. So after absorption, everything is converted
to glucose, which is the most important source of energy for the body. This glucose is transported through the bloodstream
and taken up by cells for their functions. Remember, one most important point – The body
can also make glucose from fats and proteins and similarly, If all the glucose is not needed
for energy, some of it is stored in fat cells and in the liver as glycogen
So, Now! What is INSULIN? Insulin is a hormone produced by our digestive
organ – Pancreas. This organ Pancreas is located behind the
stomach that also produces many digestive enzymes which help in the digestive process. Insulin is secreted by specialized cell in
pancreas called islet cells of pancreas. This hormone insulin helps glucose to move
from the blood into the cells. The levels of glucose in the blood vary normally
throughout the day. They rise after a meal and return to pre-meal
levels within about 2 hours after eating. Once the levels of glucose in the blood return
to premeal levels, insulin production decreases. The variation in blood glucose levels is usually
within a narrow range, about 70 to 110 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) of blood in healthy
people. If people eat a large amount of carbohydrates,
the levels may increase more. People older than 65 years tend to have slightly
higher levels, especially after eating. If the body does not produce enough insulin,
the glucose from blood does not to move into the cells, or if the cells can sometimes stop
responding normally to this action of insulin which is called insulin resistance. This is the cause for high levels of glucose
in the blood in Diabetes Mellitus and this inadequate amount of glucose inside the cells
produces the classical signs and symptoms of diabetes and responsible for multi organ
damage in diabetes. In our next episodes, we will discuss on What
is Pre-Diabetes, Types of Diabetes, Signs and symptoms of Diabetes and the treatment
options for Diabetes Mellitus. Please follow our Playlist on Diabetes. So, there you have it folks! Please give a thumbs up if you found this
video helpful and Share with your loved ones. Comment below with your feedback and queries. Consider subscribing if you are new to this
channel. Stay Healthy!

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