Types of diabetes | Endocrine system diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

Types of diabetes | Endocrine system diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy


– [Voiceover] Diabetes mellitus
is a group of disorders that’s caused by improper
function of the hormone insulin, which is secreted by the pancreas. Now, this results in disregulation of blood glucose levels in the body, specifically resulting in hyperglycemia or high blood sugar, which
is the hallmark of diabetes. Now, since diabetes is
a group of disorders, this implies that there are
multiple different conditions that can lead to diabetes
mellitus, which is true. So let’s break down diabetes
into three major types. Type I, Type II, and a third category
which we’ll just label as miscellaneous. Now, before we dive into
these three types of diabetes, let’s briefly review how
the hormone insulin works. In response to increase
in blood glucose levels, the pancreas produces and secretes a hormone known as insulin
into the bloodstream. And this insulin acts on
cells throughout the body to remove the glucose from the bloodstream by either taking it up
to use it for energy or to store it in the form of glycogen. And as a result, the blood
glucose levels decrease. And these decreased blood glucose levels then serve as a feedback mechanism to inhibit the pancreas
from secreting more insulin. So you can see that
there are two major steps in this insulin pathway. First, insulin must be
secreted by the pancreas in response to this increasing
blood glucose level. And second, the cells throughout the body must respond to the insulin in order to carry out
its metabolic functions in order to lower the glucose levels. Now, this mechanism can be thought of as similar to that of a thermostat in an air conditioning within a home. When the temperature goes up, this is sensed by the thermostat, which then sends an electrical signal to turn on the air conditioner, which will then decrease the temperature. And as the temperature goes down, this will inhibit the thermostat from continuously keeping
the air conditioner on. And this mechanism here is gonna become very important in just a minute as we differentiate the different types of diabetes mellitus. So let’s go through each of
these types individually. Type I diabetes presents
mostly during childhood. And it’s caused by a
genetic predisposition plus some sort of environmental trigger. Exactly what this is isn’t quite known. But the combination of these two results in an auto-immune disorder in which the immune system attacks the beta cells of the pancreas to prevent them from producing insulin. On the other hand, Type II diabetes typically, although not always,
presents during adulthood. And it’s even more strongly associated with a genetic predisposition. But in Type II diabetes,
instead of this unknown trigger, the genetic predisposition is accompanied with other predisposing conditions, such as obesity or hypertension. And this combination of factors results in an inability of
these cells throughout the body to respond to insulin. Then although Type I and Type II diabetes are the most common causes
of diabetes mellitus, there are a couple other
important causes of the disease. And these include diabetes
caused by medications, known as drug-induced diabetes. And drug-induced diabetes
most commonly occurs with a group of medications that are known as glucocorticoids, which are steroid medications
most frequently prescribed to decrease inflammation
throughout the body, such as with conditions
like chronic asthma or Crohn’s disease. And the other miscellaneous
cause of diabetes mellitus that’s really important to mention is the diabetes that’s
associated with pregnancy, known as gestational diabetes. Now, let’s tie this all together to receive a better understanding of how these different types of diabetes affect this underlying insulin pathway and result in diabetes mellitus. In Type I diabetes,
this auto-immune attack on the beta cells of the pancreas prevent the production and secretion of insulin into the blood. Thus, Type I diabetes
inhibits this first step in the insulin pathway. And since it decreases
the production of insulin, it’s referred to as an insulin deficiency. However, in Type II diabetes
as well as drug-induced and gestational diabetes, the pancreas continues to secrete insulin. However, it’s the cells
throughout the body that are unable to
adequately respond to it. So in a sense, these mechanisms
inhibit the second step in the insulin pathway. And this is known as insulin resistance, which can be thought of as a
relative insulin deficiency. So going back to this thermostat analogy, if either the thermostat or
the air conditioner is broken, the system as a whole doesn’t work. The temperature inside the house is gonna continue to rise. Similarly, in diabetes
mellitus, it doesn’t matter whether the underlying mechanism
affects this first step, such as with Type I diabetes, or the second step as
with Type II diabetes, drug-induced diabetes,
and gestational diabetes. Regardless, there’s gonna be
either an insulin deficiency or a relative insulin deficiency. So this pathway will not work. And the body won’t be able
to decrease glucose levels. This results in an
increase level of glucose, which is known as hyperglycemia, which as I mentioned at the beginning, is the hallmark finding
in diabetes mellitus.

10 Replies to “Types of diabetes | Endocrine system diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy”

  1. Under drug induced diabetes you didn't mention the anti-psychotic drug, Geodone(sp?) which I heard also can bring about DM II.

  2. You are able to cure type 2 diabetes permanently from now – Even when your doctor says to you that it's not curable.

  3. IT AMAZES ME HOW STUPID THESE DOCTORS TRULY ARE.
    FINDING OUT YOU HAVE DIABETES COULD BE SCARY? MOST PEOPLE DO NOT HAVE DIABETES AT ALL. YEARS BACK SUGER LEVELS OF 250 WERE NORMAL. MY FRIENDS DAUGHTER WHO IS A PHARMACIST TOLD ME WHEN SHE WENT TO SCHOOL THE NUMBER WAS 225 CLOSE TO THE NUMBER I STATED. THE PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES LOWERED THE FIGURE TO 125 TO PUT EVERYBODY ON MEDICATION. ONCE YOU TAKE THESE DIABETES MEDICINES YOUR BODY STOPS PRODUCING INSULINS BECAUSE IT IS BEING PUT INTO THE BODY EXTERNALLY AND THE BODY THEN SHUTS DOWN PRODUCTION OF INSULIN PERMANENTLY DAMAGING THE BODY'S ABILITY TO PRODUCE INSULIN. AFTER TAKING THESE DIABETES MEDICATIONS THEY WILL EVENTUALLY DESTROY YOUR KIDNEYS AND PUT YOU ON DIALYSIS FOR THE REST OF YOUR LIFE 3 DAYS A WEEK IN 4 HOUR INTERVALS. OLD BLOOD PRESSURE NUMBERS WERE 160/100 AND BEFORE THAT 180/90. CHOLESTEROL MEDICINES ARE ALSO A SCAM. WHAT THEY ARE CALLING BAD CHOLESTEROL IS THE WASTE PRODUCED FROM THE CELL AFTER IT BURNED THE GOOD CHOLESTEROL WHICH IS GOING OUT OF YOUR SYSTEM. WHAT THEY ARE DOING IS LOWERING THE WASTE THAT THE BODY IS EXPELLING AND IN TURN DAMAGES YOUR LIVER AND OTHER ORGANS AND THEN CAUSING PARKINSON'S, ALZHEIMER'S, DEMENTIA BECAUSE THESE STATIN DRUGS SHRINK THE BRAIN WHICH IS MADE OF PURE CHOLESTEROL. WAKE UP PEOPLE THE DEVIL IS IN THE DETAILS.

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