What causes headaches? – Dan Kwartler

In ancient Greece, headaches were considered powerful afflictions. Victims prayed for relief from Asclepius, the god of medicine. And if pain continued, a medical practitioner would perform the best-known remedy— drilling a small hole in the skull to drain supposedly infected blood. This dire technique, called trepanation, often replaced the headache with a more permanent…

How the food you eat affects your gut – Shilpa Ravella

Trillions of bacteria, viruses, and fungi live on or inside of us, and maintaining a good, balanced relationship with them is to our advantage. Together, they form the gut microbiome, a rich ecosystem that performs a variety of functions in our bodies. The bacteria in our guts can break down food the body can’t digest,…

The surprising cause of stomach ulcers – Rusha Modi

In 1984, an enterprising Australian doctor named Barry Marshall decided to take a risk. Too many of his patients were complaining of severe abdominal pain due to stomach ulcers, which are sores in the lining of the upper intestinal tract. At the time, few effective treatments for ulcers existed, and many sufferers required hospitalization or…