Rickettsia rickettsii & other Rickettsia species – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

The Rickettsiae are a genus of Gram-negative coccobacilli, which includes two major groups of bacteria. First, there’s the spotted-fever group, the main species in this group is Rickettsia rickettsii, which causes a disease called Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Second, there’s the typhus group of Rickettsia species – which cause different forms of typhus. This group…

Measuring Blood Pressure – Measuring Vital Signs

Measuring blood pressure. Measuring vital signs belongs to the clinical daily routine. They provide important information about a patient’s physical and physiological status. In addition to measuring respiration rate, pulse rate, and body temperature, it is essential that blood pressure is controlled. Blood pressure is measured on the patient’s bare upper arm, after a three…

Type II hypersensitivity (cytotoxic hypersensitivity) – causes, symptoms, & pathology

Having a hypersensitivity means that the immune system is reacting to something in a way that damages the body rather than protecting it. There are four different types of hypersensitivities, and the second type or type II hypersensitivity is sometimes called cytotoxic hypersensitivity because a lot of disorders caused by this hypersensitivity involve antibody mediated…