Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return

Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR) TAPVR is a congenital defect in which the pulmonary veins do not connect normally to the left atrium. Normally the pulmonary veins return oxygen-rich blood to the left atrium. Instead, they drain oxygen-rich blood to the superior vena cava by an abnormal, or anomalous, connecting vein. This results in…

Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS)

Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS). The term “hypoplastic” refers to underdevelopment of a tissue or organ. In HLHS, most of the left-sided heart structures are hypoplastic. This is a view from inside the right atrium. An atrial septal defect, or ASD, is a hole between the right and left atria. This is a view from…

Ebstein Anomaly

Ebstein Anomaly Ebstein Anomaly refers to a defect of the tricuspid valve. The tricuspid valve separates the right atrium from the right ventricle. The tricuspid valve is displaced into the right ventricle. This is inside the right ventricle. As a result, the septal leaflet is tethered and anterior leaflet is enlarged. The abnormal valve can…

Tetralogy of Fallot | Cincinnati Children’s

Tetralogy of Fallot. Tetralogy is one of the most common congenital heart defects. It has four main features: Ventricular Septal Defect, or VSD. Overriding Aorta, Pulmonary Stenosis Right Ventricular Hypertrophy This is a view from inside the right ventricle. This is a Ventricular Septal Defect, commonly referred to as a VSD. A VSD is a…