Pulmonary Arterial Disease

Pulmonary Arterial Disease


Cardio Vascular Disease, short term CVD, is the second leading cause of death, and the leading cause of hospitalizations in Canada. Every seven minutes, someone in Canada dies from heart disease or stroke. CVD is a broad term that encompasses many specific diseases. It classifies conditions that affects the heart, and it’s blood vessels. Diseases of this system affect the ability of the heart to deliver oxygen and nutrients to receiving tissue. Peripheral Arterial Disease, short term PAD, is a form of CVD. Affects the arteries of the lower extremities. Twenty percent of Canadians over the age of 65, are either at risk, or have PAD. PAD occurs when atheroscleric lesions build up within the peripheral arteries reducing the volume of blood that can flow through the vessel. These lesions are made up of fatty plaques that become deposited in the arteries in response to inflammation. The inflammation is caused by stiffening and damage that has occurred to the vessels over time, and abuse. As the plaques develop, blood flow becomes allude to the extremities, starving the tissue of oxygen. The risk factors of PAD are smoking, obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, increasing age, especially over 50, a family history of PAD, cardiovascular disease, or stroke, and high levels of homocysteine, a protein component that helps build and maintain tissue. The symptoms of PAD, are painful cramping in hip, thigh, or calf muscles after activities such as walking or climbing stairs. Leg numbness or weakness, coldness in your lower leg or foot, especially when compared with the opposite side. Sores on your toes, feet, or legs that will not heal, a change in skin pallor of the legs, hair loss or slower hair growth on your feet and legs, slower growth of toe nails, shiny skin especially on the legs and hands, a weak or no pulse in legs or feet, and erectile dysfunction in men. Typically, if we have somebody who
comes in with a lot of PDV symptoms, the first thing we’re gonna do is called an ankle brakel index or a ABI. So it’s essentially just taking a blood
pressure in the upper body and comparing it to what the pressure is like in the lower extremities, and then
it’s a math equation just to see what the blood flow difference is. If that comes out positive, saying that there is some blockage issues into the lower part of the body, the next thing that would happen would be a referral to the vascular surgeons. The warm-up is
probably the most important part of the exercise session for somebody with PDV. It’s going to take longer than most
people. If say, you typically would warm up for about five minutes, we would recommend about 10 minutes for someone with PVD. It’s just gonna allow the arteries, the muscle wall within the arteries, to expand so that the blood flow is better. Somebody with PVD, the main and the most important thing is that they pick a weight-bearing exercise. It’s something that can be done between
3 and 5 days a week. What we want to see happen is people
walking to the point of pain. If you’re talking about a claudication
scale, which is pain rated from a one to a four, with one being light, barely noticable and four being the most pain ever, you want to
take someone to about a three out of four, and then they’ll stop, you wait for the
pain to go away, and you do it again. ‘Cause what that’s gonna do is actually
force your body to produce capillaries into that muscle
so that you can oxygenated it better. For PVD we wanna see people doing at least two days a week of strength training, even three, so every other day so
that they can have a rest-day in between. We would tell someone to do between 8 and 10 exercises so their hitting all their major body parts, muscle groups, and um then as far as sets and repetitions, when someone’s starting, we would say do one set of about 15 repetitions, and then we would add the next week to do two set, up to three sets. We recommend that people do as much
flexibility work as they do aerobic conditioning, so
after exercise then their gunna to go through and stretch their major muscle groups as well. And for cool down, we would recommend at least a five-minute just slow walk again allowing for the vasculature just to return to it’s normal diameter. To prevent PVD, one should limit their exposure to risk factor, increase their physical activity levels, and practice overall healthy well-being in their daily lives.

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