Keto Diet Theory Put to the Test

Keto Diet Theory Put to the Test

“Keto Diet Theory Put to the Test” When you don’t eat
enough carbohydrates, you force your body to burn more fat. However, this rise in fat burning is often misconstrued as a greater rate of net fat mass
reduction on the body. But that ignores the fact
that on a ketogenic diet your fat intake shoots up as well. The question is what happens to
your overall body fat balance. You can’t empty a tub
by widening the drain if you’re cranking up the
faucet at the same time. Low-carb advocates
had a theory, though, the so-called carbohydrate–
insulin model of obesity. Proponents of low-carb diets,
whether a ketogenic diet or a more relaxed form of
carbohydrate restriction, suggested that the
decreased insulin secretion would lead to less fat storage; and so, even if you
were eating more fat, less of it would
stick to your frame. So, we’d be burning
more and storing less, the perfect combination for fat loss— or so the theory went. To their credit, instead of
just speculating about it, they decided to put
it to the test. Gary Taubes formed the
Nutrition Science Initiative to sponsor research to validate
the carbohydrate–insulin model. He’s the journalist who
wrote the controversial 2002 New York Times Magazine piece “What if It’s All
Been a Big Fat Lie,” which attempted to turn
nutrition dogma on its head by arguing in favor
of the Atkins diet with its bunless bacon cheeseburgers based on the carbohydrate–
insulin model. (Much of Nina Teicholz’s
book, “The Big Fat Surprise”, is simply recycled from
Taubes’s earlier work). In response, some of the very
researchers Taubes cited to support his thesis accused him
of twisting their words. “The article was incredibly
misleading,” one said, “I was horrified.” “He took this weird little idea and blew it up, and people
believed him,” said another. “What a disaster.” It doesn’t matter what people say, though. All that matters is the science. Taubes attracted $40 million
in committed funding for his Nutrition Science
Initiative to prove to the world, you could lose more body
fat on a ketogenic diet. They contracted
noted NIH researcher Kevin Hall to perform the study. Seventeen overweight men
were effectively locked in what’s called a metabolic
ward for two months to allow researchers total
control over their diets. For the first month they were placed on a typical high carbohydrate diet (50% carbohydrate; 35% fat; 15% protein), and then they were switched
to a low-carb ketogenic diet (only 5% of calories from carbohydrate;
80% fat) for the second month. Both diets had the same
number of daily calories. So, if a calorie is a calorie
when it comes to weight loss, then there should be no
difference in body fat loss on the regular diet
versus the ketogenic diet. If Taubes was right, though, if fat calories were
somehow less fattening, then body fat loss would
become accelerated. What happened instead,
in the very study funded by the Nutrition Science Initiative, was that body fat loss
slowed upon switching to the ketogenic diet. Wait…why do people
think the keto diet works if it’s actually slowing fat loss? Well, if you just looked at the
readings on their bathroom scales, the ketogenic diet would
seem like a smashing success. They went from losing
less than a pound a week on the regular diet in the two
weeks before they switched to losing three and a half
pounds within seven days after the switch to the ketogenic diet. But what was happening
inside their bodies told a totally different story. Their rate of body fat loss
was slowed by more than half. So, most of what they were
losing was just water weight. (The reason they started burning
less fat on a ketogenic diet was presumed to be because
without the preferred fuel, carbohydrates, their bodies started
burning more of its own protein.) And that’s exactly what happened. Switching to a ketogenic diet
made them lose less fat mass and more fat-free mass;
they lost more lean mass. That may help explain why the
leg muscles of CrossFit trainees placed on a ketogenic diet may
shrink as much as 8 percent. The vastus lateralis is your
biggest quads muscle in your leg, shrunk in thickness by
8% on a ketogenic diet Yes, the study subjects
started burning more fat on the ketogenic diet, but they
were also eating so much more fat on the ketogenic diet that they
ended up retaining more fat in their body despite
the lower insulin levels. This is “diametrically opposite”
to what the keto crowd predicted, and this from the guy they
paid to support their theory. In science-speak, the
carbohydrate–insulin model “failed experimental interrogation.” In light of this “experimental
falsification” of the low-carb theory, the Nutrition Science Initiative
effectively collapsed…. but, based on their tax returns,
not before Taubes and his co-founder personally pocketed millions
of dollars in compensation.

100 Replies to “Keto Diet Theory Put to the Test”

  1. This is the 2nd in a 7-video series on keto diets. In case you missed the first one, check out Is Keto an Effective Cancer-Fighting Diet? ( and subscribe to the video feed to get them in your inbox ( -NF Team

  2. For all those on here talking shit about the keto diet…keep shoving your fat mouths with sugar and refined grains, lets see where you end up in a few years

  3. I don’t care about fat loss!! I care about health! This stupid video elevates fat loss as the end all and be all, whereas health should be! So what’s the irresponsible stupid message here? It’s ok to stuff yourself with pastries, chips, and sugar? THAT is what is killing this country! Seems like this youtuber is addicted to carbs and wanting to justify stuffing himself that way. What about constantly spiking insulin?! What are the aging effects of that! Diabetes, cancer, etc.

  4. Yea but you never mentioned any Ketones and how the body transitions over from burning sugar to fat. Im not saying its still a lock but damn id like to know how the body transitions over from burning one source to another. The studied never mentioned the ketones which is the entire point of transitioning your body! The other thing is many ppl do dirty Keto and you never mentioned what kind of nutrition is being consumed. Personally i eat GREENS and protein and LIMIT my fat. I dont go hog wild, you cant be slathering butter on everything. Having done that ive gone from 24% body fat to 18% and i look and feel fantastic. My body parts are all bigger cause i work out too so PERSONALLY i dont agree w/ the research which i hate. Im one to go to science all the time. I still think the studies quoted are missing key information. You know as well as anyone you can tailor these studies.

  5. Why is it so difficult to understand that some people feel more satiated on low carb high fat, others on low fat high carb and others on something in between?The best diet is the one that makes your feel best and the one you can maintain long term. Period.

  6. I went from 285 to 176 on keto did I only lose water weight? 🤔 Dr Gregor I enjoy your videos cause most of us who do Healthy keto, eat tons of non starchy veggies! I would love to see you debate Dr Ken Berry on this subject or Dr Jason Fung! The reason keto works in my opinion is because it suppress your appetite & you can Intermittently fast for long hours which has no choice. To eat your body Fat for energy! I do enjoy & admire your beliefs Dr Gregor!👍

  7. One of the main reasons people do keto is to do i.f.
    First example if you eat 1 meal a day of nutrient dense food like steak, eggs, liver, bacon….its easier to fast 23hrs….

  8. Thanks for your compassion to inform people for their health. I found this video of a colleague who has attended your seminar, with much appreciation afterwards, interesting where he favors both vegan and keto that I feel would pique peoples' interest>> and also God bless 🙂 Secondary note: Is it true that, in the study that is cited above, that the keto eaters were given a high-carb meal once-weekly during the four week trial? I'm curious if they will do a longer study that is purely ketogenic so we all can learn more on the longterm effects,etc. Learning much and thank you for your compassion for your fellow man to live healthily 👍🙏<3🙂

  9. What was the level of excercise that accompanied the Kd, and what was the period allowed to adapt to the diet. . .? Fat adaption can take up to three years, basic adaptation three weeks to three months. . .

  10. They used fat as the bulk of calories. But if you elevate protein, it is highly likely that the subjects would become leaner. Protein leveraging is a well established characteristic of mice and other laboratory animals or insects. To be specific, every animal or insect has the same behavior which is to be more satisfied with higher protein. Other terms used for the phenomenon is protein compensatory feeding which results in higher carbohydrate mice wanting to eat more to get the same amount of protein. Bottom line is that the study should have included a higher protein group. However, the mice studies show very reduced longevity, accelerated aging, health problems.

  11. Keto is just an extreme fad diet that will do a lot of damage but hopefully won’t last, it will leave you depleted in magnesium ,potassium , fibers , photo nutrients. It will acidify your body and significantly shorten your life .

  12. I see all this people starting a keto diet and failing within 6 months. After the first couple of kg (water) it becomes difficult to loose weight and they stop. And still they look at me as if I'm a freak for being vegan🙄

  13. Yeah, keep eating your donuts and drinking your soda, everything's going to be fine… there are many types of pills waiting for you.

  14. I don’t care if you are right or not. All I care about is for the first time in 60 years I’m not addicted to food. Food no longer controls me. Go Keto! 👍😊👍

  15. 4 weeks study on Keto is trash. Anyone who knows about keto that it takes a while to get fully fat adapted. However, the point of the ketogenic diet is not that it possesses magical powers. At the end of the day if you overeat on any diet then you'll gain weight. The reason why so many people benefit from Keto is due to the high satiety and steady energy levels which makes a caloric deficit a lot easier to sustain for a lot of people . It's about satiety not some magical thermo effect. The keto diet has worked and keeps working for many people and so does a plant based diet. It's about what your body prefers. Don't be a brainless zealot.

  16. So this isn’t biased at all? Yes we know how these Charleston’s operate and people fall for it because that need to.

  17. I lost 250lbs, reversed my Type-2 Diabetes, high cholesterol and high blood pressure all without medication and just by changing to a High-Fat ultra-low carb Keto diet. Did the same with my spouse, my aunt and my father in law and their blood sugar problems. I have blood work from all of us to prove A1C reduction. I literally struggled for decades with low-fat low calorie diets and exercising and couldn't loose the weight or turn my health around like Keto did just sitting on my behind. Now I'm not saying not exercising is healthy but just as a proof of concept that the diet is what is making the difference. Watch "The Magic Pill" on Netflix. That is what got me started on it… It's important that you do Intermittent fasting along with Keto or Low Carb diets.

  18. Keto is just a fasting mimicking diet. Probably better to only do keto a short time then transition to just intermittent fasting with balanced diet.

  19. The misinformation campaign is turning up. I say do what give you RESULTS. If Keto is not for you then keep it moving. All I know is that Keto, IF and long term fasting are saving thousands of lives. The food industry, pharmaceutical industry and government are cranking out this to make their money.
    People will believe what they want regardless of the info.

  20. I think this guy is a little biased due to him being a vegan. People who live the longest all consume animal products, together with fruits and vegetables and a healthy lifestyle, you can live a long healthy life too.
    Okinawans eat pork and fish with their sweet potatoes, Sardinians eat a boat load of fish and cheeses with their beans and pasta. My grandmother lived a couple years short of 100 and loved her stuffed bell peppers with rice and mince meat in a tomato soup.

  21. If you think humans are naturally supposed to eat meat, go run outside and catch a rabbit with your bare hands and bite into it alive. Bet you can’t. Bet you think that sounds disgusting.

  22. To me idc what any study says because everyone is different in thier bodys and there is no one best diet to live by if you are in that place of mind you are lying to people. For me i was 400 pounds lost until 258 yeah my weight has stalled but damn did i feel good and was never hungry while in ketosis ! Ill take that any day. This diet has improved my heart health and my arota too as well i used to be vegan when i was 400 pounds was hungry all the time and had heart issues. You might be going to say yeah the reason you don't have en is because if your weight welll no shit sherlock lol. Vegan diet inly lost 20 pounds nad stalled for a year sucked ass now That i am on healthy keto diet with lots of good veggies and stuff and fat lots of good fats i feel better then ever. I don't need a doctor or study to tell me it doenst work i live the life style my inflammation is down and my cholestrol is lower now 😄focus on what works for you we live in a world were we think we got it figured out for everyone and playing god do what works and stick to it there is a time and place for everything. Good luck to everyone who chooses and will succeed everyone is trying to get healthy and live the best they can we are just doing it in a different way.😊

  23. , – totally unbiased website providing truth to the mass as the name roots the fundamental truth.. lol
    and yes this doctor is perfect visual specimen of a healthy man.

  24. I guess the 4 inches I lost off my hips on a keto diet and an end to my reactive hypoglycemia must have all been muscle and imagination, then. Keto benefits don't come in a week or two – what kind of science is this???! It takes time to get fat-adapted – there is an uncomfortable period between carb-reliance and fat-adaptation that would match that study.

  25. Of course that was a stupid study. 4 weeks only? That's just foolish. But the real issue is looking at weight loss at all. A keto diet is about the correct fuel to heal damaged cells. Weight loss is a positive side benefit once the inflammation is down, and organs are healed. Keto is not "highest fat," it is supposed to be fat appropriate for your activity level. Fat can go up and down, with protein sparing. Yes, carbs stay low. 4 weeks though, is not sensible. People are sick, it takes months to years to see health improve. "Forced into fat burning," is very misleading to say. We are lucky the human body can switch back and forth, however, burning carbs and alcohol are first priority because of the damage they do to the body. As we all know, each of us has a different level of damage tolerance. There are so many better keto studies out there. Let's see what you mention in the next episode.

  26. I've lost 24 lbs of fat doing OMAD. This loss was confirmed on a Inbody scanning scale. Intermittent Fasting works!! I'm not sure what this video is telling you to do to lose weight. I'm proof that IF is a great way to go. It took 10 weeks to lose that much. I'm continuing IF to lose another 75 lbs. I will probably never stop !

  27. SO true……fat is a good fuel, sugar is a bad fuel, however you need to be very disciplined because if you go back to eating sugar or carbs when on this diet, your body will use the sugar as fuel and you end up with a whole load of fat which eds up being stored, so could make you worse IF not disciplined enough

  28. Thousands of people have reversed their type 2 diabetes, cholesterol, high blood pressure, PCOS, infertility…the list goes on…by going on a low carbohydrate diet. Cutting out sugar and grains is the healthiest thing you can do for yourself.

  29. I switched from paleo to WFPB and gained weight. Then I experimented going back and forth and I always get more lean when I cut out grains and increase my fat and protein intake. I appreciate hearing about studies but I can’t deny what the tape measure and the scale tells me. I am desperate to find a way to eat wfpb that won’t make me thick in the midsection. Has anyone else overcome this on a plant based diet?

  30. You're doing your cherry picking again.

    4:44 – The study was done to see PERFORMANCE LEVELS of active crossfit trainers on a ketogenic diet NOT muscle loss- :
    A) " While our n-sizes were limited, these preliminary data suggest that adopting a ketogenic diet causes marked reductions in whole-body adiposity while not impacting performance measures in recreationally-trained CrossFit trainees."
    B) "While individuals in the current study were recreationally trained, we observed no performance decrements 2.5 weeks or 12 weeks after engaging in a KD."
    C) "Moreover, others have reported that aerobic-based athletes experience increases in fat oxidation during running [23], improvements in O2 uptake at lactate threshold after longer-term KD [24], and even improvements in sprint performance [25]."
    D) Their conclusion: "To summarize, our data suggest that a 12-week KD in recreationally-trained CrossFit trainees facilitates improvements in whole-body adiposity without compromising weightlifting, running, or aerobic performance metrics. "

    5:10 – Study was done to review the model not critque falsified information
    A) "Nevertheless, very
    low carbohydrate diets with limited protein likely reduce appetite by promoting an increase in circulating ketones, although the mechanism for this effect is unclear"
    B) "the carbohydrate–insulin model predicts that diets with decreased proportion of carbohydrate to fat, but identical protein and calories, will reduce insulin secretion, increase fat mobilization from adipose tissue and elevate fat oxidation"
    C) "The rise in obesity prevalence may be primarily due to
    increased consumption of refined carbohydrates, but the mechanisms are likely to be quite different from those proposed by the carbohydrate–insulin model."

  31. This is a misleading video. I have tried different diets but only keto works and incrrases muscle mass. The body takes some time for it to be fat adapted. Besides if you eatn to loose weight it is much better when combined with intermitent fasting.

  32. People get that keto is only a temporary state to balance an excess of poor nutrition and lifestyle, right? The first 4 weeks of keto is not easy before becoming fat adapted, allowing your body to use stored body fat as the primary food source. Being 'fat adapted' means becoming easier satiated, it doesn't mean you need to try and consume a daily equivalent in fats. It means the opposite. You eat less easily. Once a day sometimes less. It means you don't need to consume as much. Getting off the glucose roller coaster can help you even out your diet, reduce calory intake and reduce excess insulin production and sensitivity. Vegetables are vital for Keto to work as you need the fibre and minerals. Anyone who skips veggies is playing with fire. As mentioned, once in ketosis, lower dietry fats are needed as they can be absorbed from the body for energy. This means you can up your healthy protein amounts and still be in ketosis. Some are doing this and gaining muscle while training. Also once fat adapted and in an energy 'deficit' (ie. Your body is consuming it's daily requirement from both diet and stored fat) the first fat to be consumed by the body will be fat accumulated around the organs. This has significant therapeutic ramifications (ie. not just for weight loss). It's not therapeutic however when consuming low grade, highly processed oils and fats. It's not meant to be used as a pernanent replacement for a balanced nutrient and fibre dense diet. Instead as a tool for readjustment. Especially for those who've strayed a bit too far from the path. Once back in track can try to change lifestyles and stay healthy, forgetting the need to go back to keto.

  33. The video says that water loss is significant… then blames muscle shrinkage on catabolizing protein (instead of water volume reduction and glycogen depletion)…?

  34. Also, one of the biggest advantage of a low carbohydrate diet for me (based on whole foods instead of processed "replacement foods" like almond flour baked goods, etc.) is the satiety factor. I am full for longer on less calories than on a higher carbohydrate diet (even when it's whole-foods plant based). The study mentioned in this video being iso-caloric handicaps one of the biggest benefits of a ketogenic diet, so of course the study is going to show no benefit vs higher carbs. , do you know of any trials where the two different dietary approaches were tested ad libitum?

  35. Let’s examine the study a little more closely here:

    If we scroll to the very end, we can see the “low carb group” averaged 132 grams per day by the end of the study! That’s not low carb by any stretch of the imagination!

    Experiments and studies are frequently flawed, just like this one. I’ll stick with the observational evidence and what works for me and has worked for hundreds of thousands of others. Countless numbers of people have lost tremendous amounts of weight and been cured of diabetes and numerous other illnesses. Those are the facts and they cannot be denied. We’ve been lied to by the medical community.

  36. First off I will say it's every individuals right to choose what they want to eat, so I have no opinion on whether it's right or wrong. That being said the studies I have seen on keto reference 2-6 weeks to get into Ketosis (depending on the individual). With some saying that no weight loss will happen until Ketosis is achieved. The chart shows a total of 30 days, why would it not show the full 60 days. 15 days seems pointless if you are tracking keto. Also Atkin's is one of many, I personally would lean towards Dr. Berge's keto diet if I was to do so. Regards

  37. 10 years on high carb, low fat, not oil. Still waiting to gain weight. I am lean as f..k and I eat tons of carbs daily with little to not exercise. Same my family on the same lifestyle. My cousins on the other end eating only animal products, cheese and eggs are fat and obese. They always look at me with envy but nobody wants to switch to my eating habits.

  38. what surprises me is that they didn't bury the study or twist the numbers their way. isn't that what big tobacco and big soda does? also, they could have done 1000 more studies. in the meantime, they could have squeezed more money out of everyone. the whole thing is weird… i mean, this is america, right?

  39. First off I follow a keto WOE and have lost 80lbs in a year in combination with intermittent fasting. I have followed vegan and vegetarian diets on the past with no success in terms of weight management. I was aware of the study you mentioned and the issues surrounding it. I would be interested to hear what you would suggest the mechanism is behind the fat loss people experience on a keto WOE is if it is not due to insulin model? As clearly something is going on which enables people to drop the stomach inches. Many thanks.

  40. The only hope for the end of keto is for everyone doing it today to eventually die off while their kids and grandkids learn about veganism and the new generations make it better.

  41. Reading these comments is depressing, people need to step away from tribal “us vs them” mentalities when discussing science and something as important as the health of billions of people. I would like to point out that the Am J Clin Nut 2016 study is far too small to draw any major conclusions from, it was just a pilot study. It does strongly support calorie restriction for overall fat loss though – which isn’t news, but keto and fasting supporters know how easy calorie restriction is on a low carb diet.

  42. So all of the 36 pounds I have lost over the last 6 mo the was just me losing water weight and lean muscle mass despite an increase of my strength while sinultaniously decreasing my body weight? My anecdotal evidence has shown different results for me as an individual.

  43. What about time-restricted diets?

    I eat breakfast at about 7AM, a snack and then dinner at 4PM, nothing else until breakfast. I didn't weigh myself but I did have to add more holes (three) to my belt as the inches melted. This was weight that I had been fighting for years. I'm 53 and had just given up thinking that I couldn't lose the weight because of my age. The diet as it had been before was pretty clean. No sodas, mostly water with low sugar intake. I did and still do have one teaspoon full of sugar per cup of coffee in the moring, mostly two cups sometimes three, outside of that no added sugar. The only differece in my diet was cutting off all calories after 4 PM. Also my energy better. I think it has something to do with insulin resistance. Not that I was diagnosed but if I did cheat and eat something sweat I noticed I started feeling strange afterward. Eyes would go out focus, and energy would be low.

  44. Yeah eating a ton of saturated fat and listening to Jimmy Moores advice on how to be healthy never did quite seem like a great idea.

  45. Only vegans have an average BMI that's considered healthy. I know BMI isn't the best indicator of health, but damn it definitely shows how easy it is to maintain a healthy weight on a plantbased diet. Keto is pure misinformation.

  46. Dr. Greger uses phony-studies, and fake-science. He is 100% WRONG about patients with atherosclerosis! Nuts are deadly for heart patients with clogged arteries. Look at all the reputable, accurate, honest studies published by Dr Esselstyn, and Dr Dean Ornish. Shame on Dr. Greger(who has never treated a patient in his life). He just repeats the false claims from the nut industry. He is actually killing patients with atherosclerosis. I used to be a huge supporter of Dr. Greger. Not anymore.He is dangerous.

  47. If you are not fat adapted, then you can’t expect to lose fat on a ketogenic diet. It takes weeks to months to get fat adapted. In this study, they started out by getting the patients to be insulin resistant and then switching to low carb diet thus setting them up for failure in the short term.
    The ketogenic diet does not work on a short term basis if you are not fat adapted. Eventually you would begin consuming less fat because you would be burning more of your own fat.

  48. 4:17 And that's why we have the carnivore diet. Nice bias, Mr Greger. Wish it held up under scrutiny and not just in the hands of an anti-meat clown.

  49. The smarmy delivery makes me question both the information and motivations behind it. Read the WIRED article. Clicked on a link provided in the WIRED article Read that. Noticed side bar links to pubmed and looked over those. Clicked on one Diet study linking obesity possibly to fetal exposure to High Fructose Corn Syrup during pregnancy. I am suspicious of the funding behind this site. Thumbs down.

  50. Keto has the good result, and It should not be the cause of muscle loss. Others may not do it the right way that is why there's negative results.

  51. It is already known in low-carb practice that water weight is lost in the first 1 to 2 weeks, BUT, after that, fat loss takes place. It is already known that excessive dietary fat can stall weight loss, BUT, knowledgeable scientists and doctors will tell you to increase protein instead of fat when this occurs. It is already known that muscle mass loss occurs during initial fat adaptation, BUT after that occurs, great strength gains can be made.

    Good job focusing on one study from years ago. The reason people do keto is that they see it work in others.

  52. What type of fat was used in the study? What type of carbs? This is the problem with a lot nutrition science. It's oversimplifies food into it's macros, without taking QUALITY into account. High fructose corn syrup is not the same as a sweet potato, and Canola oil or corn oil is not the same as an avocado or grass-finished beef fat. If you conduct a study and give people shitty fat to eat, then yeah, you're probably going to get shitty results. It's so insane. The truth is, you can eat an unhealthy vegan diet, and you can eat an unhealthy Keto diet. Conversely, there are people out there thriving on a vegan diet, and people thriving on a Keto diet, and even a carnivore diet…. Ever wonder that is? Maybe because the importance of QUALITY of food, along with other healthy lifestyle factors (exercise, sleep quality, sunlight, stress levels) supersedes the oversimplification of AMOUNT OF MACROS (protein, fat, carbs)…

  53. Such BS, I went from being a type 2 diabetic and a BMI of 44. My a1c was a 14+. In 3 months it went to a 5.4 and in 14 months I lost 55 lb and my BMI is 21. Keto 💪 baby. Just like a veganism, you can healthy and you can eat crap.

  54. I switched to a keto/carnivore diet 6 months ago. I've had incredible results. I was in good shape before but now my body fat is around 10% while I also managed to add muscle mass. I feel strong and healthy like I'm 25 again (I'm 43). Everything is better now – skin, hair, endurance, strength, sex drive. Everyone I know who actually tried the keto diet has similar success stories. I'm sick of people trying to discredit the keto diet without having actually tried it themselves. I tried a vegan diet for a month once. I felt weak the whole time.

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