Eczema (atopic dermatitis) – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Eczema (atopic dermatitis) – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology


Atopic dermatitis or atopic eczema is a skin
rash that’s particularly common among young children, but can last into adulthood. “Atopic” refers to an allergy, “derm”
refers to the skin, and “itis” refers to inflammation. So atopic dermatitis describes skin inflammation
that results from an allergy, more specifically, it happens when the immune system attacks
the skin causing a dry, itchy rash on flexor surfaces of the body, areas like the creases
of the wrists, the insides of the elbows, and the backs of the knees, as well as exposed
skin surfaces like on the face, the hands, and the feet. When the immune system inappropriately starts
attacking itself, we call that a hypersensitivity reaction, and there are four types. Atopic dermatitis is a type 1 hypersensitivity
reaction, and it starts off with something in the environment called an allergen, like
flower pollen. The pollen is able to travel through the slightly
porous skin, where it gets picked up by an immune cell in the tissue just below. The immune cell is called an antigen presenting
cell because it presents a bit of the allergen to a naive T helper cell, activating it into
a Th2 cell. This Th2 cell then stimulates a nearby B cell
to start producing IgE or immunoglobulin E antibodies specific to that pollen. Those IgE antibodies bind to the surface of
other immune cells called mast cells, as well as basophils, which can be found in the tissue
layer just below the surface of the skin, and this process called “sensitization”. Now, let’s say that there’s a second exposure
to pollen that makes it’s way into the skin tissue. Now, the allergen can cross-link the IgE on
these sensitized cells, resulting in degranulation or release of a number of proinflammatory
molecules like histamine, leukotrienes, and proteases. The combined effect of these molecules is
to cause nearby blood vessels to dilate and become leaky as well as attract even more
immune cells to the area creating inflammation of the skin tissue. Ultimately, the inflammation makes the skin
barrier more “leaky”, potentially allowing in more of the allergen, while at the same
time allowing water to escape, leaving the skin dry and scaly. Dry skin is very itchy, and scratching further
damages the skin barrier, worsening the process and setting up a vicious cycle of allergy-mediated
inflammation, dry skin, and itching which characterizes atopic dermatitis. Occasionally, bacteria can invade the damaged
skin causing even more inflammation. In infants, the rash is most often on the
face and scalp, and in children, the rash is usually on flexor surfaces of extremities. Atopic dermatitis can worsen in the presence
of allergens like cigarette smoke, mold, and dust mites, as well as changes in the weather,
and even emotional stress. Although it usually causes patches of red
itchy skin that come and go, the skin can occasionally even blister and peel. Over time, the skin can become lichenified,
which literally means turned to leather. Itchiness is often worst at night, perhaps
because there are no distractions, and this is often when young children are most likely
to scratch at their eczema lesions. Because eczema is an autoimmune mediated process,
it cannot be spread to other people, but since it affects the skin and therefore the way
a person looks, there is still a lot of social stigma associated with it. Unfortunately, many individuals especially
teenagers and young adults with atopic dermatitis suffer from depression and social anxiety
as a result. Genetics plays an important role in atopic
dermatitis, and individuals with atopic dermatitis often also have asthma, as well as allergic
rhinitis, making up what’s called the atopic triad. These illnesses also often run in families. Occasionally, atopic dermatitis can be part
of a syndrome like Hyper IgE syndrome, which has an autosomal dominant form commonly called
Job syndrome, phenylketonuria, which is a metabolic disorder that results from a buildup
of the amino acid phenylalanine, and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, which is an X-linked recessive disease
characterized by a clinical triad of eczema, thrombocytopenia, and immunodeficiency. Atopic dermatitis is generally a clinical
diagnosis, and there are ways to help break the cycle of allergy-mediated inflammation,
dry skin, and itching. With regard to allergy-mediated inflammation
it’s important to identify and avoid any triggers, as well as avoiding overheating,
dressing in soft fabrics, and managing stress well, which is of course a good life habit
anyway. Dry skin can be managed with frequent moisturization,
which is usually best to apply after a lukewarm bath. And itching can sometimes be managed with
simple measures like keeping fingernails short, and trying to keep children from scratching. But in more extreme cases, there are also
steroids and calcineurin inhibitors both of which aim to dampen the immune reaction, as
well as antihistamines that can help with itching, and antibiotics to help treat infections
if their needed. Alright, as a quick recap, atopic dermatitis
also called atopic eczema, is a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction in the skin, and is characterized
by a cycle of allergy-mediated inflammation, dry skin, and itching that most commonly affects
infants and young children. Atopic dermatitis can be managed by minimizing
exposure to allergens, keeping the skin hydrated, and minimizing itching. Thanks for watching, you can help support
us by donating on patreon, or subscribing to our channel, or telling your friends about
us on social media.

100 Replies to “Eczema (atopic dermatitis) – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology”

  1. Im 35 five and every so many years Eczema strikes again and strikes hard. Usually it's the wrists and hands but sometimes it gets where I least expect it to and I'll think it's something else. One time I didn't wash and dry underneath my wedding ring and that's where it hit. I had a red ring of bursted and scratched skin that was the shape and placement of my wedding ring. At that same it got to my lower male anatomy!!!!! It was hell. Eczema is a fact of life at this point but damn that itching is pure misery. This video told more than I ever knew about eczema. Thank you and cheers to all my fellow eczema brothers and sisters.

  2. My hands swelled past a week but it has gone now. My hands are itchy,dry. The skin looks so dull and loose. Pls help!

  3. I’m a hand contact dermatitis sufferer. It just appeared one day when I was 24 and never left me. I’m now 31 & it’s effecting my life in a major way… I wish their was a cure!

    I get the broken skin, oozing blood etc… along with wet weepy wounds… it’s embarrassing & unbearable!

    I used to get in behind my neck, ears & on my toes too, but I’ve been able to keep further breakouts at bay.

  4. U can cure eczema there is a treatment fro it in Africa I cant go now but I'm gonna get it sent to me. I am ten yrs old and I really wanna help peeps with eczema cause it actually makes you depressed when your the only one in your family that has it!

  5. I’m 13 and I’ve had eczema for all of my life, although it’s been mild and most usually doesn’t go red or blister, it’s the same colour of my skin but you can see the dots there, anyways, I’ve noticed that the eczema is starting to form on the lower part of my chest and slowly move up my body, I’ve never had eczema on my face, so is it possible to go on my face??
    As a high schooler it’s really hard to explain when other kids ask about my arms and it’s just plain annoying and depressing, I really don’t want it on my face.

  6. I was ambushed by eczema during the childhood and the worst part was my parents discover no treatment. I searched the net in my teens and bumped into Planet Ayurveda who gave me Atopic Dermatitis Care Pack and made me follow a sincere diet. Currently, I am totally fit & fine.

  7. My own right hand was afflicted with a terrible skin allergy for 6 months and I been to numerous physicians to remedy the issue but with no success. Soon after trying a lot of high priced anabolic steroid lotions and creams and such, a great companion recommended I consider eczema guideline “Rαsοkο Kuzo” (Gοοgle it). There was no more skin rashes right after several weeks of trying it.. .

  8. This unique skin rashes tutorial “Rαsοkο Kuzo” (Gοοgle it) is completely brilliant, it cured my eczema in the hands within Only two days. It`s already been a couple of months ever since I obtained this diseases, and I could say that this manual is a lot better in comparison to the prescripted anabolic steroid lotions and creams I have got used.. .

  9. Few red-colored patches can be seen within my elbows and legs. It is been with me for most of my life. If my very first few days of using it, I could notice my very own skin area flakes. The redness are disappeared soon after using this eczema guide “Rαsοkο Kuzo” (Gοοgle it). On the Fourth time, I discover that my very own cheek does not have any flakiness and also the section has absolutely treated..Immediately after the Fourth time of following the guidebook, I noticed the flakiness to be gone and also the impacted part are now treated. .

  10. I had "bacne" a few years ago which was caused by my "Dove" hair conditioner. I was putting tretinoin, benzoyl peroxide ointment on it and nothing worked. Then I had a eureka moment and realized what was causing it. Once I stopped using this particular conditioner my acne went away within a couple of weeks. It has never happened with any other conditioner, even if it's more emollient, which I find very strange. Thanks for another awesome video!!

  11. I have eczema for about 3 years and it won't heal. I've done several medications from dermatologist and now I'm so frustrated figuring out what more to do. I badly want this to disappear 🙁

  12. Does anyone have any tips with how to calm this? Mine has started since ive hard the mirena coil fitted, and the flare ups are getting worse. It started on my scalp but is now on my face and causes my face to swell and thicken. Its mostly when im tired and stressed. My doctor just told me there isnt much i can do apart from relax and take an anti histemine when it flares up

  13. I have eczema and it’s fine for me because the first cream they gave me worked I’m so happy Be great full my grandma has it on her scalp

  14. I had "bacne" a few years ago which was caused by my "Dove" hair conditioner. I was putting tretinoin, benzoyl peroxide ointment on it and nothing worked. Then I had a eureka moment and realized what was causing it. Once I stopped using this particular conditioner my acne went away within a couple of weeks. It has never happened with any other conditioner, even if it's more emollient, which I find very strange. Thanks for another awesome video!!

  15. My face was clear but i had bacne. My dermatologist in the Philippines asked me to take Nizoral capsules & to use the Nizoral shampoo as a body wash. She said my acne was most likely fungal. It helped my bacne. Another thing that helped a lot was having laser hair removal of my back & regular TCA peels. I now have very clear, smooth back.

  16. I had "bacne" a few years ago which was caused by my "Dove" hair conditioner. I was putting tretinoin, benzoyl peroxide ointment on it and nothing worked. Then I had a eureka moment and realized what was causing it. Once I stopped using this particular conditioner my acne went away within a couple of weeks. It has never happened with any other conditioner, even if it's more emollient, which I find very strange. Thanks for another awesome video!!

  17. My face was clear but i had bacne. My dermatologist in the Philippines asked me to take Nizoral capsules & to use the Nizoral shampoo as a body wash. She said my acne was most likely fungal. It helped my bacne. Another thing that helped a lot was having laser hair removal of my back & regular TCA peels. I now have very clear, smooth back.

  18. I had "bacne" a few years ago which was caused by my "Dove" hair conditioner. I was putting tretinoin, benzoyl peroxide ointment on it and nothing worked. Then I had a eureka moment and realized what was causing it. Once I stopped using this particular conditioner my acne went away within a couple of weeks. It has never happened with any other conditioner, even if it's more emollient, which I find very strange. Thanks for another awesome video!!

  19. I had "bacne" a few years ago which was caused by my "Dove" hair conditioner. I was putting tretinoin, benzoyl peroxide ointment on it and nothing worked. Then I had a eureka moment and realized what was causing it. Once I stopped using this particular conditioner my acne went away within a couple of weeks. It has never happened with any other conditioner, even if it's more emollient, which I find very strange. Thanks for another awesome video!!

  20. Hi all, I have been combating eczema all my life, recently my eczema flared up so bad on almost 10 of my fingers and on my right palm. Long story short, after many failed SELF-attempts to cure my eczema, finally I consulted a skin specialist, and the doctor advised me to take allergen-specific Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody test. The test is to screen for an allergy to a specific allergen. It can be from certain food, cat or dog dander, certain type of grass, etc. The result shown from the test, apparently I am allergic to 2 types of dust mites (Mite Farinae d2 and Mite Pteronyssinus d1), commonly found in our household. Since then, I have been taking active and preventive measures to mitigate this problem, like change mattress and pillows, use anti dust mite mattress and pillow casing, spray on anti dust mite solution on sofa, chairs, bed, and even in my car. On top of that, I try my best to exercise regularly and eating healthy. I strongly advice for those who suffer from Eczema, go out and do the test and find out what are the things/food you are allergic to. I hope this comment helps. Cheers!

  21. I had small patches of eczema and also treated it by using this eczema guide “Rαsοkο Kuzo” (Gοοgle it). The effects were impressive so I made a decision to further make use of the cure on my face. It decreased the outbreaks and also only tends to make my skin really feel way more wholesome.. .

  22. Couple of red-colored patches could be spotted inside my elbows and also thighs. It’s already been with me for most of my life. The initial couple of days, it was a little flaky. The inflammation are all vanished soon after trying this eczema guide “Rαsοkο Kuzo” (Gοοgle it). Subsequently after the Fourth time of following the guidebook, I recently found the flakiness to be disappeared and the afflicted part are actually cured. .

  23. I have eczema all over my body and I'm twelve, some times I can't even walk because my legs are so sore its horrible

  24. I came across this unique skin rashes guidebook “Rαsοkο Kuzo” (Gοοgle it) two winters ago when I was suffering from an extremely horrible eczema episode in the hands and wrists. My own hands ended up red, itchy, dry. This is a highly effective guide. I was not out of the hassle of covering my hands, thanks a lot to this guide. I highly recommend it.. .

  25. I had "bacne" a few years ago which was caused by my "Dove" hair conditioner. I was putting tretinoin, benzoyl peroxide ointment on it and nothing worked. Then I had a eureka moment and realized what was causing it. Once I stopped using this particular conditioner my acne went away within a couple of weeks. It has never happened with any other conditioner, even if it's more emollient, which I find very strange. Thanks for another awesome video!!

  26. My face was clear but i had bacne. My dermatologist in the Philippines asked me to take Nizoral capsules & to use the Nizoral shampoo as a body wash. She said my acne was most likely fungal. It helped my bacne. Another thing that helped a lot was having laser hair removal of my back & regular TCA peels. I now have very clear, smooth back.

  27. The thing is, it looks like I may have it on my one elbow, but it doesn’t bother me 😛 It doesn’t itch or anything

  28. This skin rashes manual “Rαsοkο Kuzo” (Gοοgle it) is completely amazing, it treated my eczema on my hands and fingers within Only two days. These past months I have got this sickness and also recently been using prescribed anabolic steroid ointments but have not cured what’s disturbing me until I tested out this specific guidebook. I`m experiencing a whole lot better today. .

  29. i'm 13 years old and the worst I've had it so far was when I was 9, it was very itchy, and my skin looked like it had cuts when in fact it was just so dry. what's worse is its around my lip area which I get ALOT of acne around and I have angular cheilitis and with all of them put together around at the same area it just looks like I got a beating xD. but its decreased slightly since I've started using Clinique face creams and toners also some face masks and serums from the body shop as well as Cetaphil face wash and Avené sun block. and the only thing I'm suffering from is angular cheilitis so I'm good lol. it just hurts me when people ask about it so I just cover my mouth and pretend I'm thinking about something when I'm in fact I'm just crying inside.

  30. I’ve had this for 12 years (since i was 1 1/2) my skin is considered severe and I’m gonna send this to my friends. Super helpful to watch this and helps me understand what I have because all the dermatologists I’ve seen are confusing af

  31. I’m 14 and I’ve always had eczema especially on my face and it has aways made me feel insecure especially since last year when someone pointed it out. Then the doctor told me to use so type of cream but when my allergies are really acting up it just makes it worst and whole face burns. Long story short life with eczema sucks.

  32. My own right hand was affected with a terrible skin break outs for 6 months and I consulted several medical doctors to take care of my problem but with no success. After trying numerous pricey anabolic steroid creams and the like, a good companion encouraged I use eczema manual “Rαsοkο Kuzo” (Gοοgle it). There was no longer skin rashes after several weeks of utilizing it.. .

  33. During the past Two winters, I acquired this rashes on my hand and wrists as a result of outbreak. As a result of that I was able to know relating to this eczema manual “Rαsοkο Kuzo” (Gοοgle it). My own hands and wrists were red-colored, itchy, very dry. The guidebook is magic that works. I wasn`t out of the hassle of covering my hands and fingers, thanks a lot to this guide. You ought to make use of this. .

  34. Ive got eczema on my back, arms, stomach, and legs( occasionally face too) and this mf just wont fuck off. Nothing has ever been so efficient at ruining my day.

  35. In the past Two winters, I got this eczema on my hands due to the skin outbreak. Because of that I had been able to uncover about this eczema manual “Rαsοkο Kuzo” (Gοοgle it). My hands and wrists had been red-colored, itchy, dry. This is certainly an efficient guidebook. The manual ended up saving me from the trouble of putting ice packs to my hands. I advise it.. .

  36. This particular skin rashes guideline “Rαsοkο Kuzo” (Gοοgle it) is absolutely wonderful, it healed my eczema on my hands and fingers in Two days. It is already been a few months ever since I have this health problems, and I also could acknowledge this tutorial is much better than the prescripted anabolic steroid treatments which I have tried out.. .

  37. I uncovered this eczema manual “Rαsοkο Kuzo” (Gοοgle it) two winters ago when I was encountering a particularly horrible eczema outbreak on my wrists. My hands and fingers were red, itchy, dry. This really is an efficient guidebook. The guide saved me from the hassle of strapping ice packs to my very own hands and wrists. It is best to make use of this. .

  38. This skin rashes tutorial “Rαsοkο Kuzo” (Gοοgle it) is totally excellent, it cleared my eczema on my hands and fingers in A couple of days. These past months I have this particular health problem and also been utilizing prescripted steroid lotions and creams but have not relieved the thing that is disturbing me till I tried out this specific guidebook. I am feeling even better at this point. .

  39. I hate having eczema on my face, I get stares ALOT and get asked questions everyday. I have rlly bad anxiety cause of this:(

  40. I used to be fighting eczema since I was a teen and immediately after above 20 years, I was not capable to remedy this particular illness. Even I’ve conferred with several dermatologists to checked exactly what I have, the thing is still appear. I right away tested out eczema guideline “Rαsοkο Kuzo” (Gοοgle it) for about thirty days, unexpectedly, the situation never returned for many years.. .

  41. Several red-colored spots can be spotted inside my elbows and thighs. It’s already been with me for nearly all of my life. The 1st couple of days, it was a bit flaky. The inflammation are generally faded subsequently after using this eczema guide “Rαsοkο Kuzo” (Gοοgle it). Within the 4th time, I find that my cheek does not have any flakiness and also the part has entirely treated..Subsequently after the 4th day of adhering to the manual, I noticed the flakiness to be gone and also the affected spot are now cured. .

  42. I’m currently 14 and this happened to me randomly when I was around 11 or so, but i have it on my hands during cold weather and it’s the worst my hands are so dry and they peel so much it’s so awkward when someone at school notices it 😭😭😭😭😭😭

  43. Lovely Video! Sorry for chiming in, I am interested in your thoughts. Have you heard about – Honenry Hiycarlett Principle (probably on Google)? It is an awesome exclusive guide for stopping eczema without the hard work. Ive heard some extraordinary things about it and my mate got amazing success with it.

  44. Cheers for the Video! Apologies for butting in, I would appreciate your thoughts. Have you heard about – Honenry Hiycarlett Principle (google it)? It is a good one of a kind product for stopping eczema without the hard work. Ive heard some decent things about it and my best friend Jordan after a lifetime of fighting got astronomical results with it.

  45. Omg my life. My is so bad on my hands. But the itchy is so bad that I will itch until I bleed. But I found that putting lotion on it. Taking away dairy and taking some daily supplements I have found a way to keep it at bay.

  46. every one who is suffering f with eczema, follow these rules
    1) start taking vitamin.E
    2) the best best best best treatment is to dip your hands( if eczema is confined to fingers and palms in hot water – hot is like above Luke warm temperature where u tend to dip but cant keep long because of hotness , keep moving in and out of the bowl until u reach the acceptable temperature, and keep for some 5 mints and remove it immediately apply coconut oils nd antibacterial cream.
    if really bad and worse then take gupisone steroidal tab. for 5 days or 10 days
    every one can get rid of eczema by hit water treatment s.this will eradicate any fungal strains and important thing that happens here is blood circulation and the cells become supple whereby the cells tend to function more effectively …any one of dermatology pls you may publish a paper and even get patency based in my suggestion good luck medicos.

  47. My own right-hand had been afflicted with a bad skin rash for few months and that i consulted a lot of dermatologists to help remedy my skin problem but with no success. After trying a lot of higher-priced anabolic steroid treatments and the like, a good companion advised I try eczema guideline “Rαsοkο Kuzo” (Gοοgle it). A few weeks had gone and my skin rashes had been vanished too. .

  48. Since I was a youngster, I currently have this particular eczema, even after I reached my Twenty years of living I have this skin rashes. The skin rashes still continued immediately after talking to many medical professionals as well as making use of diverse advised products that have just a short term impact. I immediately tried using eczema guideline “Rαsοkο Kuzo” (Gοοgle it) for around 30 days, astonishingly, the condition never ever returned for several years.. .

  49. I used to be enduring eczema since I was a teenager and right after above Twenty years, I wasn`t able to deal with this specific health issue. The rashes still continued right after consulting a number of doctors as well as using various advised items that have only a short term result. I right away tested out eczema manual “Rαsοkο Kuzo” (Gοοgle it) for around 30 days, amazingly, the situation never appear for decades.. .

  50. This shit gave me a hard life, I cant eat want I want, I cant use scented body soap even I cant even use any skin care products

  51. I got little patches of eczema as well as cured it employing this eczema guide “Rαsοkο Kuzo” (Gοοgle it). I uncovered results while using the guide and later used it to treat the eczema affected areas of the face and it appeared to be useful. It reduced the outbreaks and also only tends to make the skin feel much more healthy.. .

  52. Just under my eyes I observed an itchiness has started. Later on to learn that it’s already an eyelid eczema. I spotted the condition has slightly lessened the next day just after utilizing this particular eczema guide “Rαsοkο Kuzo” (Gοοgle it). Within just 14 days of continually utilizing the guidebook, I am positive that it’s absolutely eliminated and no chance of coming back. .

  53. In barely 2 times of using this skin rashes guide “Rαsοkο Kuzo” (Gοοgle it), I have noticed satisfying outcomes by now. These past weeks I have got this particular ailment and also recently been making use of prescribed steroid balms however have not alleviated what’s pestering me until eventually I tried using this specific manual. I am feeling far better at this point. .

  54. In the past Two winters, I experienced this skin rashes in the hand and wrists as a result of skin outbreak. As a result of that I had been able to find concerning this eczema manual “Rαsοkο Kuzo” (Gοοgle it). My own hands were red-colored, itchy, very dry. The guide is magic that really is effective. I was not out of the hassle of wrapping my hands, thanks a lot to this guide. I suggest it.. .

  55. My right-hand was afflicted with a terrible skin break outs for half a year and I attended many medical doctors to deal with my issue but to no avail. But just after trying to employ this specific eczema guide “Rαsοkο Kuzo” (Gοοgle it) which was advised with a close friend of mine, effects were remarkable. There was no more skin rashes just after a month of applying it.. .

  56. There are several components to reducing eczema at home . One plan I found which successfully combines these is the Takiras Magic Method (check it out on google) without a doubt the most useful blueprint i've seen. Check out the amazing info.

  57. I have spent months researching treating eczema naturally and discovered an awesome resource at Takiras Magic Method (google it if you're interested)

  58. It’s relieving to see that I’m not the only one suffering from this. I haven’t even been brave enough about this to tell my friends, but I’m pretty sure they’ve noticed my fingers throughout these years. Hang in there guys, you’ll loose it soon enough ^^

  59. There are several things to try
    consure higher quantities of fruit and vegatables.
    Drink more liquids
    cut down smoking.
    Reduce your stress level.
    (I read these and the reasons they work from Enata Skin System website )

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