12.3 Diet and Heath: Hypertension

12.3 Diet and Heath: Hypertension


– WELCOME TO THE THIRD SECTION IN OUR SERIES ON DIET
AND HEALTH. THIS SECTION IS
COVERING HYPERTENSION. HYPERTENSION IS
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE, AND THE WAY PRESSURE GOES UP WITHIN THE VASCULAR SYSTEM IS
FORCED BY THE AMOUNT OF PUMPING THAT COMES
FROM THE HEART. SO BOTH THE STRENGTH
AND FORCE OF CONTRACTION OF THE HEART PUMPING BLOOD
WILL INCREASE THE PRESSURE. THE SIZE OF
THE ARTERIES MATTERS; THE SMALLER THE SIZE
THE MORE CONSTRICTION AND THAT ALSO
INCREASES THE PRESSURE. THE AMOUNT OF VOLUME, WHICH IS THE VOLUME OF THE
FLUID WITHIN THE VESSELS, ALSO INCREASES THE PRESSURE. AND WE TALK ABOUT
THE VESSEL SIZE. YOU CAN LOOK AT THE EXAMPLE
OF THE NORMAL VESSEL SIZE, AND IF YOU HAVE THE SAME
BLOOD FLOW THROUGH A NORMAL VESSEL AND THEN THAT VESSEL
ESSENTIALLY CONSTRICTED, ALL OF THE SUDDEN
YOU’RE TRYING TO PUSH THE SAME AMOUNT OF FLUID
THROUGH A SMALLER SPACE. NOW, THAT’S GOING TO
LEAD TO A HIGHER PRESSURE. A NORMAL BLOOD
PRESSURE IS LESS THAN 120/80 MILLIMETERS OF MERCURY. AND GENERALLY WE LIKE
TO THINK ABOUT EVEN A HEALTHY BLOOD PRESSURE
AS BEING 115/75. AS SOON AS IT’S OVER 120 OR 80, YOU’RE INTO THE
PRE-HYPERTENSION RANGE. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE IS 140/90
MILLIMETERS OF MERCURY. THERE ARE TWO NUMBERS. THIS TOP NUMBER IS CALLED THE
SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE WHERE THIS BOTTOM NUMBER HERE IS
THE DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE. THE SYSTOLIC PRESSURE
MEANS THAT IT’S THE PRESSURE WHEN YOUR
HEART IS CONTRACTING. IF YOU THINK ABOUT YOUR
HEART IT IS PUMPING, RIGHT? SO WHEN IT PUMPS IT
PUSHES BLOOD OUT. WHEN IT PUMPS AND PUSHES BLOOD
OUT THERE IS ONE PRESSURE. YOU CAN FEEL THESE
DIFFERENT PRESSURES, THAT PRESSURE,
IF YOU TAKE YOUR PULSE. PUT YOUR HAND RIGHT HERE
YOU CAN FEEL YOUR PULSE, YOU’RE GOING TO
FEEL THAT BEATING. WELL, THAT BEAT IS THE BLOOD
GOING INTO YOUR ARTERIES THROUGHOUT YOUR SYSTEM AND
THAT IS THE SYSTOLIC PRESSURE. THAT’S ONE PRESSURE. THEN THE HEART RELAXES. THE CHAMBERS FILL AND THAT IS
CALLED THE DIASTOLIC PRESSURE, SO IT’S THE RESTING PRESSURE
OR THE FILLING PRESSURE. AND THAT’S WHAT THESE
TWO NUMBERS REPRESENT. WELL, THE RISK FACTORS, REMEMBER THESE
ARE THE VARIABLES, THE FACTORS THAT
CONTRIBUTE TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF HYPERTENSION
AND THEY ARE MANY, BUT THEY INCLUDE
ATHEROSCLEROSIS. NOW, NOTICE AND REMEMBER
BACK THAT HYPERTENSION WAS A RISK FACTOR
FOR ATHEROSCLEROSIS, BUT ATHEROSCLEROSIS IS A
RISK FACTOR FOR HYPERTENSION. SO IT’S ALMOST LIKE THIS
CIRCULAR DISEASE PROGRESSION. OBESITY, INSULIN
RESISTANCE, AGE, GENETICS, RACE,
SEDENTARY BEHAVIOR, DIETARY FACTORS, EXCESS ALCOHOL,
AND STRESS. A LOT OF RISK FACTORS, SO REMEMBER THERE’S
NO SINGLE ONE CAUSE. THERE ARE A NUMBER OF
CAUSES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE DEVELOPMENT
OF HYPERTENSION. NOW, WHEN WE THINK
ABOUT HOW TO LOWER BLOOD PRESSURE WE WANT THINK
ABOUT SOME DIETARY OR LIFESTYLE MODIFIABLE RISK FACTORS,
LIFESTYLE RISK FACTORS. SO LOWERING SODIUM INTAKE, THE REASON IS THAT
WATER FOLLOWS SODIUM. THAT MEANS THAT IN THE BODY
WHEREVER SODIUM GOES WATER GOES, SO THE MORE SODIUM THAT’S IN
THE BODY, IN THE BLOODSTREAM, THE MORE FLUID THAT’S
GOING TO BE IN THERE. REMEMBER THAT INCREASE IN FLUID, INCREASE IN VOLUME,
INCREASES PRESSURE. NOW, WEIGHT LOSS FOR OBESITY IS
A RISK FACTOR FOR HYPERTENSION. MODERATE ALCOHOL INTAKE. EXCESS ALCOHOL INTAKE
IS ACTUALLY A FAIRLY POWERFUL RISK FACTOR FOR
ELEVATING BLOOD PRESSURE. INCREASE INTAKE OF FRESH
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES AND THIS HAS TO DO WITH SOME PARTICULAR
MINERALS I’LL TALK ABOUT NEXT. IF YOU HAVE MORE
POTASSIUM AND CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, THAT ACTUALLY HELPS BALANCE OUT THE
AMOUNT OF SODIUM. AND IT’S BEEN SHOWN THAT
YOU CAN ACTUALLY HAVE A FAIR AMOUNT OF SODIUM IN YOUR
DIET IF YOU HAVE AN ABUNDANCE OF FRESH WHOLE FRUITS AND
VEGETABLES BECAUSE YOU’RE GETTING SO MANY MORE NUTRIENTS
TO HELP BALANCE OUT THAT EFFECT, SO INTAKE OF FRESH WHOLE
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. REDUCING INTAKE OF FAT,
AND THIS IS ACTUALLY MOSTLY IN REGARDS TO OUR PROCESSED
FATS AND SOME SATURATED FATS. SO NOT NECESSARILY
OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS; THEY REALLY HAVEN’T
BEEN LINKED TO LOWER BLOOD PRESSURE AND
AS I JUST MENTIONED, CALCIUM, POTASSIUM,
AND MAGNESIUM. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY; THIS IS A REALLY POWERFUL
RISK FACTOR IS PEOPLE WHO ARE VERY SEDENTARY
DEFINITELY HAVE A GREATER RISK OF HAVING
HIGHER BLOOD PRESSURE. THE MORE ACTIVE YOU ARE; THAT MEANS YOUR HEART
WILL BE STRONGER, IT WILL BE MORE EFFICIENT, AND WE ACTUALLY END UP HAVING
A LOWER BLOOD PRESSURE. SO ATHLETES TYPICALLY
HAVE BOTH LOWER HEART RATES AND
LOWER BLOOD PRESSURE. AND IT’S BECAUSE THEIR
HEART IS STRONGER. THEY CAN PUSH OUT MORE
BLOOD THROUGH THAT CONTRACTION OF THE HEART
THAN A WEAKER HEART. JUST LIKE IF YOU LIFTED
WEIGHTS IN THE GYM YOU WOULD GET A BIGGER MUSCLE,
YOU COULD LIFT MORE WEIGHT. SAME THING; YOU’RE HEART CAN GET STRONGER,
CAN PUMP OUT MORE BLOOD. I’M GOING TO FINISH WITH
THE “DASH DIET.” AND THE REASON I BRING THIS
UP IS BECAUSE THIS DIET, WHICH IS THE DIETARY APPROACH
TO STOP HYPERTENSION. THIS APPROACH HAS BEEN
SHOWN TO BE BETTER AR REDUCING BLOOD PRESSURE THAN
JUST REDUCING SODIUM ALONE. NOW, THE REASON IS BECAUSE OF
WHAT I JUST MENTIONED. BECAUSE IT HAS AN ABUNDANCE OF FRESH WHOLE FRUITS
AND VEGETABLES, SO A DASH DIET FOCUSES ON
PLANT FOOD, LEAN MEATS, AN ABUNDANCE OF FRESH
WHOLE NON-PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES,
LEGUMES, AND WHOLE GRAINS. NOT BREAD OR CEREAL,
I MEAN, WHOLE GRAINS SUCH AS
BROWN OR WILD RICE. THE FINDINGS WERE
FAIRLY DRAMATIC THAT THE BLOOD PRESSURE
WILL ACTUALLY GO DOWN, AND AGAIN IT’S BECAUSE THERE’S
AN INCREASE OF CALCIUM, POTASSIUM, MAGNESIUM, AND VITAMIN C. THEORETICALLY
THAT IS THE THEORY BEHIND THE DIET BECAUSE IT HELPS BALANCE
OUT SOME OF THE SODIUM. WHERE DO WE GET
MOST OF OUR SODIUM? FROM PROCESSED FOODS, SO IF YOU CUT OUT THE PROCESSED
FOODS AND YOU BRING IN ALL OF THE WHOLE FOODS THAN YOU
ARE GOING TO HAVE A BETTER PROFILE OF YOUR MINERALS
AND YOUR ELECTROLYTES. AND ALL OF THAT WILL
CONTRIBUTE TO FLUID BALANCE. AND THIS IS GOING TO BE THE END
OF OUR SECTION ON HYPERTENSION.  

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